Cancer: What You Need to Know

Cancer is the umbrella term for a large group of diseases caused by the rapid division of abnormal cells into other tissues and organs. Cancer is one of the world's leading causes of death.

Cancer is a very broad word. It explains the disease that occurs when cell changes cause uncontrolled cell growth and cell division.

Some forms of cancer cause rapid cell growth, while others cause cells to expand and divide more slowly. Some types of cancer result in noticeable growths called tumors, while others, such as leukemia, do not.

Most cells in the body have unique functions and a fixed life span. Although this might sound like a negative thing, cell death is part of a normal and beneficial phenomenon called apoptosis.

In order for the body to replace it with a new cell that performs better, a cell receives instructions to die. Cancer cells are missing the components that tell them to avoid dividing and die.

As a result, they build up in the body using oxygen and nutrients that would normally feed other cells. Cancer cells may form tumors, weaken the immune system and cause other changes that prevent the body from functioning regularly.

Cancer cells can appear in one region, and then spread through the lymph nodes. There are clusters of immune cells that are found in the body.

Causes of Cancer

There are many causes of cancer and some of them are preventable.

In addition to smoking, cancer risk factors include the following:

  • heavy alcohol consumption

  • excess body weight

  • physical inactivity

  • poor nutrition

Other causes of cancer are not preventable. Currently, the most significant unpreventable risk factor is age.

Symptoms of Cancer

Signs and signs caused by cancer can differ depending on which part of the body is affected.

Many of the general signs and symptoms associated with, but not specific to, cancer include:

  • Changes in weight, including accidental loss or gain

  • Changes in bowel or bladder habits

  • Continuous indigestion or nausea after eating

  • Continuous, unexplained muscle or joint pain

  • Continuous, unexplained fevers or night sweats

  • Difficulty swallowing

  • Hoarseness

  • Lump that may be felt under the skin

  • Persistent cough or difficulty breathing

  • Skin changes, like yellowing, redness of the skin, or changes to existing moles

  • Tiredness/Fatigue

  • Unexplained bleeding or bruising

When you have any recurring signs or symptoms that concern you, make an appointment with your doctor.

Discuss your concerns with your doctor if you do not have any signs or symptoms, but are concerned about your cancer risk. Ask about which tests and procedures for cancer screening are suitable for you.

Cancer Treatments

  • Chemotherapy

  • Hormone therapy

  • Immunotherapy

  • Precision medicine, or personalized medicine

  • Radiation therapy

  • Stem cell transplant

  • Surgery

  • Targeted therapies


  • Quit smoking.

  • Avoid too much exposure to the sun.

  • Eat a healthy diet.

  • Exercise most days of the week.

  • Maintain a healthy weight.

  • Drink alcohol in moderation, if you choose to drink

  • Schedule tests for cancer screening.

  • Inquire about immunizations with your doctor.

To Sum It Up

Cancer causes cells to uncontrollably divide. It also stops them from dying in their life cycle at the natural level.

Genetic variables and lifestyle decisions, such as smoking, may lead to the disease 's growth. The ways that DNA interacts with cells and guides their division and death are influenced by many elements.

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